Samoylenko O.A., Shlyakhovenko V.O.

The aim of this review is to summarize the contemporary data on the relationship between the activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), polyamine (PA) metabolism and lipid metabolism in physiological and pathological conditions. ODC catalyzes the rate-limiting stage of polyamines biosynthesis, which are involved in many processes crucial for cell growth, division and differentiation. The role of ODC in neoplastic transformation and the involvement of ODC and polyamines in the proliferation and differentiation processes are analyzed. There is demonstrated the participation of ODC and polyamines in the regulation of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the white adipose tissue cellular composition and the ratio of white and beige adipocytes. The impact of ODC activity and polyamine metabolism on lipid metabolism in adipocytes and regulation of adipose tissue mass is discussed. The inhibition of ODC activity prevents the differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts into adipocytes. Existing data suggest that the acceleration of the metabolic flow of polyamines due to the activation of spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase leads to a decrease in energy reserves in the cell; furthermore, its decline results in an increase in intracellular concentrations of neutral fats. Polyamines themselves, like a number of hormones, can affect lipid metabolism. The regulatory role of ODC in adipogenesis appears to be important for a growing number of metabolic diseases, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer.

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