THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF APPROACHES TO THE COMMERCIALIZATION OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INNOVATIONS IN MEDICAL AND BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES IN SOME FOREIGN COUNTRIES AND IN UKRAINE
A comparative analysis of foreign and domestic experience in commercialization and technology transfer (TT) of medical and biological science and technology innovations (STI) was carried out; most important mechanisms and factors affecting the effectiveness of implementation were identified. Aim: to carry out a comparative analysis of strategies, mechanisms and approaches to the commercialization of the results of science and technology activities in the medical and biological field in the most developed countries and in Ukraine. Results: STI commercialization is a matter of state priority. In Ukraine, the practical application of universities’ and academic institutions’ innovative products is hindered by insufficiently developed state mechanisms for STI commercialization. Existing obstacles provoke the degradation of STI innovation potential, resulting in a negative impact on the universities and academic institutions financial support and in the prospects to achieve a higher level of research. A number of factors, related to the scientific and organizational approach, affect the implementation of innovations: imperfection in the patenting strategy and in the organizational and marketing activities, lack of interaction between science and clinical practice, shortage of competent professionals etc. It possible to discern some priorities for improving the efficiency of TT of state-funded domestic medical and biological STI: development of commercialization and TT centers, business incubators, specialized technology parks, establishment of a venture investment, stimulation of public-private partnerships for developing programs and projects of innovative products elaboration and release. The analysis of works by foreign experts in the development of innovation, commercialization and STI TT in economically developed countries (the USA, France, Germany, Finland and Sweden) revealed state support for launching close relationships between companies and universities and academic institutions for new technology centers establishment. The organization of financial support for the research projects and programs is an important function of foreign medical universities. Despite the different approaches to the commercialization of medical and biological STI in the universities and academic institutions of these countries, they have a leading role in determining national priority areas of medical and biological research.