SOME ASPECTS OF THE USE OF VIRUSES IN THE TREATMENT OF MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS
- R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
Aim: to analyze scientific publications dedicated to justification of the feasibility and effectiveness of viruses belonging do different taxonomic groups to be utilized in the treatment of malignant tumors (tumor biotherapy). The review describes features of the viruses which were studied as the means of oncolytic virotherapy or as the vectors in gene therapy. Virotherapy is considered to be a type of cancer patients’ treatment based on application of the viruses which selectively infect and kill cancer cells. Gene therapy implies the treatment of patients with malignant tumors with the help of viral vectors by introducing into somatic cells functioning genes which are able to repair genetic abnormalities or alter the malignant properties of a transformed cell. The mode of action, basic principles and strategy of the mentioned types of therapy are discussed. Possible limitations and complications are analyzed. The mechanisms of overcoming antitumor immune deficiency due to the utilization of therapeutic agents of viral nature are considered.