The literature on the development of photodynamic therapy (including elaboration of the photosensitizers) as well as on the mechanism of its action was analyzed. There was given the list of oncological diseases in the treatment of which this modality was used; the efficiency of the latter was considered; the advantages and disadvantages were analyzed. Photodynamic therapy is considered as one of the up-to-date non-invasive modality of precancerous and oncological diseases treatment. It is based on the utilization of laser radiation which is capable to generate singlet oxygen and free radicals in the presence of photosensitizers, thus triggering photochemical reactions in tumor cells and tissues and leading to the subsequent destruction of their protein structures. High efficiency, organ-saving technology, low systemic toxicity to vital body organs are the main advantages of this method. In the article, important unresolved issues regarding the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of patients with malignant tumors are discusses.

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