Chekhun V.F., Domina E.A.

Aim: to analyze the accumulated biodosimetric data and review the theoretical assumptions regarding the stochastic effects of irradiation in the range of small doses at the chromosomal level of highly radiosensitive human blood cells. Results: the authors examine the nature of the dose dependence of induced genetic damage in the blood cells of the liquidators of the Chernobyl disaster and medical workers whose activities are related to the sources of ionizing radiation. Particular attention is paid to the formation of stochastic effects in the range of small doses. It is widely accepted that the accumulation of chromosomal mutations in the cell population is potentially oncogenic, and small (above the background level) doses of ionizing radiation are carcinogenic. This means that in cases of high individual radiosensitivity, induced genetic disorders that occur in the somatic cells of professionals are able to create the preconditions for the emergence and development of radiogenic cancer. The authors pay special attention to the possible influence of SARS-CoV-2 virus on the radiosensitivity of the body of the patients recovered from COVID-19. The authors propose a hypothesis of mechanisms of increase in radiosensitivity based on the development of systemic long-term inflammation. This scenario of the evolution of radiosensitivity of the human body argues for a differentiated approach to predicting the occurrence of stochastic effects of ionizing radiation and requires further experimental testing using a set of relevant radiobiological indicators. Conclusion: analysis of the accumulated material and revision of theoretical assumptions in the field of radiobiology regarding stochastic (carcinogenic) effects of ionizing radiation in the range of small doses argues for a more in-depth study of the impact of individual (rather than general) radiosensitivity on their formation.

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